Document Type: Research(Original) Article

Authors

1 Medicinal Plants Processing Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz Iran

2 Medicinal Plants Processing Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 Department of Phytopharmaceuticals (Traditional Pharmacy), School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

Bearing essential oil, Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) is widely applied in pharmaceutical and perfumery industries. In Iran, the oil and hydrosol are obtained in two famous centers, Kashan and Fars. The process can be performed either traditionally or conventionally. Moreover, rose oil samples are produced synthetically by commercial industries. Current work outlines the differences between collected samples. Eight samples yielded from those present methods were collected and analyzed using a gas chromatograph connected to a mass detector. Samples were prepared traditionally, conventionally or synthetically. Results revealed that phenyl ethyl alcohol, β-citronellol and phenethyl acetate were the most detected component in synthetic sample (38.77, 15.73% and 15.29%, respectively). The synthetic sample involved two more major constituents (9.52 and 2.86%). Traditionally and conventionally produced samples mainly contained hydrocarbons as nonadecane (17.42 – 40.38%), heneicosane (17.26 – 26.17%), 1-nonadecene (4.98 – 15.33%), heptadecane (3.96 – 10.33%) and eicosane (2.83 – 5.19%), but lower in total rose alcohol from 0.00% in concentrated traditional samples to 30.24% in the sample prepared by a conventional method. High amounts of hydrocarbons in samples might be related to prolonged and repeated distillation, and thus nearly total amount of rose alcohol is transferred into the water phase.

Keywords

  1. Ritz CM, Schmuths H, Wissemann V (2005) Evolution by Reticulation: European Dogroses Originated by Multiple Hybridization Across the Genus Rosa. J Hered 96: 4-14.
  2. Boskabady MH, Vatanprast A, Parsaee H, Boskabady M (2013) Possible mechanism of inotropic and chronotropic effects of Rosa damascena on isolated guinea pig heart. Daru 21: 38.
  3. Dolati K, Rakhshandeh H, Shafei MN (2011) Antidepressant-like effect of aqueous extract from Rosa damascena in mice. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine 1: 91-97.
  4. Baydar NG, Baydar H, Debener T (2004) Analysis of genetic relationships among Rosa damascena plants grown in Turkey by using AFLP and microsatellite markers, J Biotechnol 111: 263-267.
  5. Boskabady MH, Shafei MN, Saberi Z, Amini S (2011) Pharmacological effects of Rosa damascena. Iran J Basic Med Sci 14: 295.
  6. Moein M., Zarshenas MM., and Delnavaz Sh. Chemical Composition Analysis of Rose Water Samples from Iran, Pharmaceut Biol 27: 1-4.
  7. Boskabady MH, Kiani S, Rakhshandah H (2006) Relaxant effects of Rosa damascena on guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s), J Ethnopharmacol 106: 377-382.
  8. Arezoomandan R, Kazerani HR, Behnam-Rasooli M (2011) The Laxative and Prokinetic Effects of Rosa damascena Mill in Rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci 14: 9-16.
  9. Hajhashemi V, Ghannadi A, Hajiloo M (2010) Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Rosa damascena hydroalcoholic extract and its essential oil in animal models. Iran J Pharm Res 9: 163-168.
  10. Shafei MN, Rakhshandah H, Boskabady MH (2010) Antitussive effect of Rosa damascena in guinea pigs. Iran J Pharm Res 231-234.
  11. Basim E, Basim H (2003) Antibacterial activity of Rosa damascena essential oil. Fitoterapia 74: 394-396.
  12. Hajhashemi V, Ghannadi A, Hajiloo M (2010) Analgesic and anti-infammatory effects of rosa damascena hydroalcoholic extract and its essential oil in animal models. Iran J Pharm Res 9: 163-168.
  13. Babu KGD, Singh B, Joshi VP, Singh V (2002) Essential oil composition of Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) distilled under different pressures and temperatures. Flavour Fragr J 17: 136-140.
  14. Gholamhoseinian A, Fallah H, Sharififar F (2009) Inhibitory effect of methanol extract of Rosa damascena Mill. flowers on alpha-glucosidase activity and postprandial hyperglycemia in normal and diabetic rats. Phytomedicine 16: 935-941.
  15. Rakhshandeh H, Vahdati-Mashhadian N, Dolati K, Hosseini M (2008) Antinociceptive effect of Rosa damascena in Mice. J Biol Sci 8: 176-180.
  16. Nikbakht A, Kafi M (2008) A Study on the Relationships between Iranian People and Damask Rose (Rosa damascena) and its Therapeutic and Healing Properties. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 790: 251-254.
  17. Verma RS, Padalia RC, Chauhan A, Singh A, Yadav AK (2011) Volatile constituents of essential oil and rose water of damask rose (Rosa damascena mill.) cultivars from north indian hills. Nat Prod Res 25: 1577-1584.
  18. Loghmani-Khouzani H, Sabzi Fini O, Safari J (2007) Essential oil composition of Rosa damascena Mill cultivated in central Iran. Scientia Iranica 14: 316-319.
  19. Baydar H, Baydar NG (2005) The effects of harvest date, fermentation duration and Tween 20 treatment on essential oil content and composition of industrial oil rose (Rosa damascena Mill.). Ind Crop Prod 21: 251-255.
  20. Moein, M, Karami F, Tavallali H, Ghasemi Y (2010) Composition of the essential oil of rosa damascena mill. from south of Iran. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 6: 59-62.
  21. Adams R (2001) Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Quadrupole Mass Spectroscopy, Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream, USA.
  22. Rose J, Earle S (1996) The world of aromatherapy, Frog, Ltd., berkeley, CA
  23. Baser KHC, Buchbauer G (2010) Handbook of essential oils : science, technology, and applications, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  24. Mohamadi, M, Shamspur T, Mostafavi A (2013) Comparison of microwave-assisted distillation and conventional hydrodistillation in the essential oil extraction of flowers Rosa damascena Mill. Journal of Essential Oil Research 25: 55-61.
  25. Shamspur T, Mohamadi M, Mostafavi A (2012) The effects of onion and salt treatments on essential oil content and composition of Rosa damascena Mill. Ind Crop Prod 37: 451-456.
  26. Mostafavi A, Afzali D (2009) Chemical composition of the essential oils of Rosa damascena from two different locations in Iran. Chem Nat Comp 45: 110-113.
  27. Yassa N, Masoomi F, Rohani Rankouhi SE, Hadjiakhoondi A (2009) Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of the Extract and Essential oil of Rosa damascena from Iran, Population of Guilan. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 17: 175-180
  28. Sood RP, Singh B, Singh V (1992) Constituents of Rose Oil from Kangra Valley, H. P. (India). Journal of Essential Oil Research 4: 425-426.
  29. Almasirad A, Amanzadeh Y, Taheri A, Iranshahi M (2007) Composition of a Historical Rose Oil Sample (Rosa damascena Mill., Rosaceae). Journal of Essential Oil Research 19: 110-112.