Document Type: Research(Original) Article

Authors

Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Fars, Iran.

Abstract

The protective effects of Artemia salina L. extract was examined against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced cell toxicity. In the in vitro model of study, markers such as cell viability, cellular reduced and oxidized glutathione, and lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells was evaluated. Human liver cancer cell line HepG2 was treated with CCl4 and Artemia salina extract, and markers of hepatotoxicity were investigated. Artemia salina extract showed significant dose-dependent protective effects against the cytotoxicity of CCl4. This extract was able to normalize the levels of GSH, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive (TBARs), which were altered due to CCl4 intoxication in HepG2 cells. As the oxidative stress markers were ameliorated, it might be concluded that Artemia salina extract possesses protective effects probably due to its antioxidant constituents.

Keywords

  1. Nguta J, Mbaria J, Gakuya D, Gathumbi P, Kabasa J, Kiama S, editors. Evaluation of acute toxicity of crude plant extracts from Kenyan biodiversity using brine shrimp, Artemia salina L.(Artemiidae). Open Conf Proc J. 2012.
  2. Hajirostamloo M. Genetic differentiation of Artemia parthenogenetica from Various ecological population of Iran. Int J Biol Life Sci. 2009;5:3-9.
  3. Gambardella C, Mesarič T, Milivojević T, Sepčić K, Gallus L, Carbone S, et al. Effects of selected metal oxide nanoparticles on Artemia salina larvae: evaluation of mortality and behavioural and biochemical responses. Environ Monit Assess. 2014;186(7):4249-59.
  4. Anuevo GM, Nomura N. Improvement of total polyphenol content, total carotenoid and antioxidant activities of Artemia salina nauplii bioencapsulated with green tea extract. J Curr Res Sci. 2014;2(2):203.
  5. Leite AdS, Dantas AF, Oliveira GLdS, Gomes Júnior AL, de Lima SG, Cito AMdGL, et al. Evaluation of toxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of natural and technical cashew nut shell liquids using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina bioassays. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015.
  6. Devi NK, Kumar AT, Balasubramanian T. Pigment Deficiency Correction in Captive Clown Fish, Amphiprion ocellaris Using Different Carotenoid Sources. J Fishscicom. 2016;10(1):4.
  7. Carocho M, Ferreira IC. A review on antioxidants, prooxidants and related controversy: natural and synthetic compounds, screening and analysis methodologies and future perspectives. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;51:15-25.
  8. Wade NM, Gabaudan J, Glencross BD. A review of carotenoid utilisation and function in crustacean aquaculture. Rev Aquacul. 2015.
  9. Minyuk G, Chelebieva E, Chubchikova I. Secondary carotenogenesis of the green microalga Bracteacoccus minor (Chodat) Petrova (Chlorophyta) in a two-stage culture. Int J Algae. 2014;16(4).
  10. Schöpf L, Mautz J, Sandmann G. Multiple ketolases involved in light regulation of canthaxanthin biosynthesis in Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102. Planta. 2013;237(5):1279-85.
  11. Yan F, Dibner J, Knight C, Vazquez-Anon M. Effect of carbohydrase and protease on growth performance and gut health of young broilers fed diets containing rye, wheat, and feather meal. Poult Sci. 2016:pew300.
  12. Lokhmatikov AV, Voskoboynikova N, Cherepanov DA, Skulachev MV, Steinhoff H-J, Skulachev VP, et al. Impact of Antioxidants on Cardiolipin Oxidation in Liposomes: Why Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Serves as an Apoptotic Signal? Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016.
  13. Sohn D-H, Kim Y-C, Oh S-H, Park E-J, Li X, Lee B-H. Hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging effects of Nelumbo nucifera. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(2):165-9.
  14. Mustafa SA, Karieb SS, Davies SJ, Jha AN. Assessment of oxidative damage to DNA, transcriptional expression of key genes, lipid peroxidation and histopathological changes in carp Cyprinus carpio L. following exposure to chronic hypoxic and subsequent recovery in normoxic conditions. Mutagenesis. 2015;30(1):107-16.
  15. Wu J-G, Kan Y-J, Wu Y-B, Yi J, Chen T-Q, Wu J-Z. Hepatoprotective effect of ganoderma triterpenoids against oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in human hepatic HepG2 cells. Pharm Biol. 2016;54(5):919-29.
  16. Yu Z, Sun W, Peng W, Yu R, Li G, Jiang T. Pharmacokinetics in vitro and in vivo of two novel prodrugs of oleanolic acid in rats and its hepatoprotective effects against liver injury induced by CCl4. Mol Pharm. 2016;13(5):1699-710.
  17. Liu L, Zhang K, Sandoval H, Yamamoto S, Jaiswal M, Sanz E, et al. Glial lipid droplets and ROS induced by mitochondrial defects promote neurodegeneration. Cell. 2015;160(1):177-90.
  18. Zarei M, Mobasher MA, Morowvat MH, Mousavi P, Montazeri-Najafabady N, Hajighahramani N, et al. Effects of menthone and piperitone on growth, chlorophyll a and β-carotene production in Dunaliella salina. J App Pharm Sci. 2016;6(9):215-9.
  19. Hsu W-J, Chichester C, Davies B. The metabolism of β-carotene and other carotenoids in the brine shrimp, Artemia salina L.(Crustacea: Branchiopoda). Comp Biochem Physiol. 1970;32(1):69-79.
  20. Murador DC, Mercadante AZ, de Rosso VV. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage. Food Chem. 2016;196:1101-7.