Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Characteristics of Volatile Components and Ethanolic Fruit Extract of Prosopis farcta (Bank & Soland.)

Mohammad Ali Farboodniay Jahromi, Hamed Etemadfard, Zahra Zebarjad


The present investigation was conducted to study the volatile composition of essential oil, the radical scavenging and antimicrobial characteristics of the ethanolic fruit extract of Prosopis farcta (Bank & Soland.). The fruit essential oil was analyzed by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/Mass). Twenty seven compounds were identified which represents 97.3% of the total oil. Among the chemical components of the oil, the highest  percentage was recorded for 9,12-octadecadienoic acid ethyl ester (35.11%). Palmitic acid  (21.38%), cemberene A and nonanal (4.7%) and myristic acid (4.4%) were identified as the major constituents. P. farcta ethanolic fruit extract exhibited a high phenol content (61.55±0.07 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g of dry plant) while its total flavonoid content was found to be 17±0.08 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g of dry plant. Evaluation of antioxidant efficacy of ethanolic fruit extract was performed using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and ABTS+ (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assays. In DPPH scavenging assay, IC50 value of the ethanolic fruit extract of P. farcta was found to be 62.45±00 µg/mL. The extract also exhibited a significant ABTS+ free radical inhibition (IC50, 53.24±0.03 µg/mL) while displayed a moderate reducing ability (IC50 =121.43±0.57 µg/ml) in FRAP assay. Results of antimicrobial screening revealed the higher inhibitory effect of ethanolic fruit extract against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli both with MIC values of 16 µg/ml when compared to other tested bacteria. A significant anti-candidial activity was detected for P. farcta ethanolic fruit extract (MIC50, 32 µg/mL) among the tested fungal species.


García-AM, González-LR, Rocha-GN, Gallegos-IJ, Rosales-CM, Medina-TL. Mesquite

Leaves (Prosopis laevigata), a natural resource with antioxidant capacity and

cardioprotection potential. Ind. Crops Prod. 2013;44:336-42.

Marles RJ and Farnsworth NR. Antidiabetic plants and their active constituents.

Phytomedicine. 1995; 2:137-89.

Pasiecznik NM, Harris PJC, Smith SJ.. Identifying tropical Prosopis species: a field

guide, UK: HDRA Publishing, Coventry, 2004, 1-29.

Qasem JR. Chemical control of Prosopis farcta (Banks and Sol.) Macbride in the Jordan

Valley. Crop Protection, 2007;26: 572-75.

Omidi A and Ghazaghi M. Prosopis farcta beans increase HDL cholesterol and decrease

LDL cholesterol in ostriches (Struthio camelus). Trop Anim Health Prod. 2013;45:


Al-Aboudi A , Afifi FU. Plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Jordan: a review of

scientific evidence. Pharm Biol 2011;49: 221-39.

Mahasneh AM, Abbas JA and El-Oqlah AA. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts of

Herbal Plants used in the Traditional Medicine of Bahrain. Phytother Res. 1996;10:


Garg A, Mittal SK. Review on Prosopis cineraria: A potential herb of Thar desert. Drug

Invention Today 2013;5:60-5.

Harzallah-Skhiri F, Jannet HB, Hammami S, Mighri Z. Variation of volatile compounds

in two Prosopis farcta (Banks et Sol.) Eig. (Fabales, Fabaceae = Leguminosae)

populations. Flavour Fragr J. 2006;21:484-87.

Liu Y, Singh D and Nair MG. Pods of Khejri (Prosopis cineraria) consumed as a vegetable

showed functional food properties. J Funct Foods. 2012;4:116-21.

Adams RP. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass

spectrometry: Allured publishing corporation. 2007.

The Pherobase, Kovats Index:


NIST Mass Spectral Library. 2001.NIST/EPA/NIH: USA,


Pourmorad F, Hosseinimehr S and Shahabimajd N. Antioxidant activity, phenol and

flavonoid contents of some selected Iranian medicinal plants. Afr J Biotechnol. 2006;


Meda A, Lamien CE, Romito M, Millogo J and Nacoulma OG. Determination of the total

phenolic, flavonoid and proline contents in Burkina Fasan honey, as well as their radical

scavenging activity. Food Chem. 2005;91:571-77.

Moein S and Moein MR. Relationship between antioxidant properties and phenolics in

Zhumeria majdae. J Med Plants Res. 2010;4:517-21.

Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M and Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant

activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol

Med. 1999;26:1231-37.

Benzie IF, Strain JJ. The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) as a Measure of

“Antioxidant Power”: The FRAP Assay. Anal Biochem. 1996;239:70-6.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. M07–A8. Methods for dilution antimicrobial

susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically; approved standard, 8th ed. Wayne,

PA: CLSI; 2009.

Camarda L, Dayton T, Di Stefano V, Pitonzo R and Schillaci D. Chemical composition

and antimicrobial activity of some oleogum resin essential oils from Boswellia

spp.(Burseraceae). Ann Chim. 2007;97:837-44.

Almaraz-Abarca N, da Graça Campos M, Avila-Reyes JA, Naranjo-Jimenez N, Corral

JH, Gonzalez-Valdez LS. Antioxidant activity of polyphenolic extract of monofloral

honeybee-collected pollen from mesquite (Prosopis juliflora, Leguminosae). J Food

Compos Anal. 2007;20:119-24.

Harzallah-Skhiri F and Jannet HB. Flavonoids diversification in organs of two Prosopis

farcta (Banks & Sol.) Eig.(Leguminosea, Mimosoideae) populations occurring in the

Northeast and the Southeast of Tunisia. J Appl Sci Res. 2005;1:130-36.

Koolen HHF, da Silva FMA, Gozzo FC, de Souza AQL, de Souza ADL. Antioxidant,

antimicrobial activities and characterization of phenolic compounds from buriti (Mauritia

flexuosa L.f.) by UPLC–ESI-MS/MS. Food Res Int. 2013;51:467–73.

Bragg LH, Bacon JD, McMillan C and Mabry TJ. Flavonoid patterns in the Prosopis

juliflora complex. Biochem Syst Ecol. 1978;6:113-16.

Direkvand-Moghadam F, Ghasemi-Seyed V, Abdali-Mashhadi A-R, Lotfi A, Direkvand-

Moghadam A, Delpisheh A. Extraction and measurement of the Quercetin flavonoid of

Prosopis farcta in Khouzestan climatic condition. Adv Herb Med 2015;1:


Shahidi F, Ambigaipalan P, Phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beverages and spices:

Antioxidant activity and health effects - A review. J Funct Foods. 2015;18:820-97.

Piluzza G, Bullitta S. Correlations between phenolic content and antioxidant properties in

twenty-four plant species of traditional ethnoveterinary use in the Mediterranean area.

Pharm Biol. 2011;49:240-47.

Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods:

Impact on human health. Pharmacogn Rev. 2010;4:118–26.

Farboodniay Jahromi M A, Moein M R, Ahmadi S. In Vitro Free Radical Scavenging

Activity and total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content of Spathe Extracts from 10 Cultivar

Varieties of Phoenix dactylifera L. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res. 2016;8;1481-

Aqeel A, Khursheed AK, Viqaruddin A, Sabiha Q. Antimicrobial activity of julifloricine

isolated from Prosopis juliflora. Arzneimittelforschung. 1989;39:652-55.

Hendrich AB. Flavonoid-membrane interactions: possible consequences for biological

effects of some polyphenolic compounds. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2006;27:27-40.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Contact Information:
  • Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR, Iran.
    Tel/Fax: +98 71 32424128 Ext: 297
  • P.O. Box: 17345-1583 Shiraz, Iran
  • Web site:; 
  • pISSN: 2423-3722   eISSN: 2423-5652