Biotechnology: employing organism as bioreactors

Document Type : Review Article


1 Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran 2 Department of Cancer Immunology & AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA Department of Microbiology & Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA


Biological products, especially proteins, have numerous applications including prevention, diagnosis, and treating diseases. Advances in biotechnology in recent years have opened up many ways to manufacture these products in large scales. To engineer biopharmaceuticals, often pro and/or eukaryotic sustainable resources are used. Selection of the cellular factory depends on the type and application of protein needed. In this review, we explore current resources used to produce biologics, examine these resources critically for their biological output, and finally highlight impact of using sustainable resources in modern medicine

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