The preventive potential of Citrullus vulgaris (Thunb.) seed extract on cafeteria diet, atherogenic diet-induced obesity, and formaldehyde/ Freund's adjuvant arthritis models in rats

Document Type : Research(Original) Article

Authors

1 Vaageswari Institute of Pharmaceutical science,Thimmapur, Karimnagar, India.

2 Department of Pharmacology, PES. College of Pharmacy, Bangaluru, India.

3 Department of Pharmacy, Vaageswari College of Pharmacy, Thimmapur, Karimnagar, India.

10.30476/tips.2021.86327.1048

Abstract

This present study was aimed to explore the anti obesity and anti arthritic activities of seed extracts of Citrullus vulgaris (Thunb) in cafeteria diet (CD), atherogenic diet (AD) induced obesity and Formaldehyde and Freund’s adjuvant (FA) induced arthritis in experimental animals i.e. rats. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared by using soxhlet apparatus and maceration process respectively. Anti obesity activity of seed extracts of this plant was evaluated in CD and AD induced obesity and anti arthritic activity was evaluated in formaldehyde and FA induced arthritis in rats. Phytochemical studies with both ethanolic extract (ELSCV) and aqueous extract (AQSCV) revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, flavonoids, saponins, fixed oils, glycosides and steroids. No mortality or behavioral abnormality recorded in mice at the highest dose level of 2000 mg/kg tested for LD50 studies. Both the extracts with medium and high doses exhibited a significant anti obesity activity by reducing the body weight, food intake, organ and fat pads weight and serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoproteins and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with an increased high density levels in CD and AD induced obesity models in rats. Both extracts with medium and high doses exhibited a significant anti arthritic activity and reduced serum biochemical parameters in FA induced arthritis model in rats. The anti obesity and anti arthritic activities with extracts conformed the above mentioned activities because presence of flavonoids, saponins, fixed oils, steroids, alkaloids and glycosides.

Keywords


1. de Freitas Junior LM, de Almeida EB Jr. Medicinal plants for the treatment of obesity: ethnopharmacological approach and chemical and biological studies. Am J Transl Res. 2017;9(5):2050-2064. Published 2017 May 15.
2. Dixon JB. The effect of obesity on health outcomes. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010 Mar 25;316(2):104-8. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2009.07.008. Epub 2009 Jul 21. PMID: 19628019.
3. Gong M, Wen S, Nguyen T, Wang C, Jin J, Zhou L. Converging Relationships of Obesity and Hyperuricemia with Special Reference to Metabolic Disorders and Plausible Therapeutic Implications. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2020 Mar 30;13:943-962. doi: 10.2147/DMSO.S232377. PMID: 32280253; PMCID: PMC7125338.
4. Derdemezis CS, Filippatos TD, Mikhailidis DP, Elisaf MS. Review article: effects of plant sterols and stanols beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Jun;15(2):120-34. doi: 10.1177/1074248409357921. Epub 2010 Mar 3. PMID: 20200328.
5. Kulkarni SK, Gurupreet K. An insight into its neurochemical basis and treatment. Indian J Pharmacol. 1999;31:388-403.
6. Chenhui Z, Jianhua S. Role of adipocytokines in obesity-associated insulin resistance. J Nutri Biochem. 2008;19:277-286.
7. Tripathy S, Sahoo SP, Pradhan D, Sahoo S, Satapathy DK. Evaluation of anti arthritic potential of Hybanthus enneaspermus. Afr J Pharmacy Pharmacol. 2009;3:611-4.
8. Meera S, Kumar NS, Guptatyam VS. Screening of anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of a polyherbal formulation. Int J Pharmacol. 2008;4:398–402.
9. Panoulas VF, Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou A, Metsios GS, Smith JP, Milionis HJ, Douglas KM, et al. Association of interleukin-6 (IL-6)-174G/C gene polymorphism with cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: the role of obesity and smoking. Atherosclerosis. 2009 May;204(1):178-83. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2008.08.036. Epub 2008 Sep 6. PMID: 18848327.
10. Kumawat G, Goyal M, Mathur K, Yadav S K . Citrullus lanatus: An Overview on Pharmacological Activities. Intl J Pharm Biol Arch .2017;8 :6-9.
11. Mullai K, Jebanesan A, Pushpanathan T. Mosquitocidal and repellent activity of the leaf extract of Citrullus vulgaris (cucurbitaceae) against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi liston (diptera culicidae). Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2008 Jan-Feb;12(1):1-7. PMID: 18401966.
12. Khaki A, Fathiazad F, Nouri M. Effects of Watermelon Seed Extract (Citrullus Vulgaris) on Spermatogenesis in Rat. Int J Women’s Health Reproduction Sci.2013; 1:99-104.
13. Tlili I, Hdider C, Lenucci MS, Ilahy R, Jebari H, Dalessandro G. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities during fruit ripening of watermelon cultivars. J Food Compost Anal. 2013;24:923-928.
14. Mandel H, Levy N, Izkovitch S, Korman SH. Elevated plasma citrulline and arginine due to consumption of Citrullus vulgaris (watermelon). J Inherit Metab Dis. 2005;28(4):467-72. doi: 10.1007/s10545-005-0467-1. PMID: 15902549.
15. Guzmán-Gutiérrez SL, Navarrete A. Pharmacological exploration of the sedative mechanism of hesperidin identified as the active principle of Citrus sinensis flowers. Planta Med. 2009 Mar;75(4):295-301. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1185306. Epub 2009 Feb 13. PMID: 19219759.
16. Ohtsuki K, Abe A, Mitsuzumi H, Kondo M, Uemura K, Iwasaki Y, Kondo Y. Glucosyl hesperidin improves serum cholesterol composition and inhibits hypertrophy in vasculature. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2003 Dec;49(6):447-50. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.49.447. PMID: 14974738.
17. Baynes JW, Thorpe SR. Role of oxidative stress in diabetic complications: a new perspective on an old paradigm. Diabetes. 1999 Jan;48(1):1-9. doi: 10.2337/diabetes.48.1.1. PMID: 9892215.
18. Wolff SP, Jiang ZY, Hunt JV. Protein glycation and oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus and ageing. Free Radic Biol Med. 1991;10(5):339-52. doi: 10.1016/0891-5849(91)90040-a. PMID: 1855674.
19. Figueroa A, Sanchez-Gonzalez MA, Wong A, Arjmandi BH. Watermelon extract supplementation reduces ankle blood pressure and carotid augmentation index in obese adults with prehypertension or hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2012 Jun;25(6):640-3. doi: 10.1038/ajh.2012.20. Epub 2012 Mar 8. PMID: 22402472.
20. Kola V, Mondal S, Ganapathy S, Mondal P. Toxicological Evaluation of Meloxicam and Ketorolac Loaded Chitosan and PLGA Nanoparticle Formulations. Lat Am J Pharm. 2019;38:243-52.
21. Kola V, Mondal P, Thimmaraju MK, Mondal S, Rao NV. Antiarthritic potential of aqueous and ethanolic fruit extracts of “Momordica charantia” using different screening models. Pharmacog Res. 2018;10:258-64.
22. Kokkola R, Li J, Sundberg E, Aveberger AC, Palmblad K, Yang H, et al. Successful treatment of collagen-induced arthritis in mice and rats by targeting extracellular high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 activity. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Jul;48(7):2052-8. doi: 10.1002/art.11161. PMID: 12847700.
23. Patel MG, Pundarikakshudu K. Anti-arthritic activity of a classical Ayurvedic formulation Vatari Guggulu in rats. J Tradit Complement Med. 2015 Sep 4;6(4):389-394. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2015.08.007. PMID: 27774424; PMCID: PMC5067862.
24. Harris ED Jr. Rheumatoid arthritis. Pathophysiology and implications for therapy. N Engl J Med. 1990 May 3;322(18):1277-89. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199005033221805. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 1990 Oct 4;323(14):996. PMID: 2271017.