The Antimicrobial Activity of Two Marine Red Algae Collected from Algerian West Coast

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, Laboratory of Research in Geo-Environment and Spatial Development GEDE, Department of biology. University of Mustapha Stambouli,29000 Mascara, Algeria

2 Bioconversion Laboratory, Microbiology Engineering and Health Safety, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Life, University of Mascara, Algeria.

10.30476/tips.2021.89827.1078

Abstract

In this present study, extracts of two marine red algae (Asparagopsis taxiformis, Hypnea musciformis), harvested from Algerian West Coast (Oran), were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against Human pathogenic bacteria including antibiotic-resistant organisms and three fungi. Their antimicrobial activities from crude methanolic extracts were evaluated by using the paper disc agar diffusion method at different concentrations (0.5 to 2mg/ml). Methanolic extract of A. taxiformis showed highest antibacterial activity compared to that of H.musciformis. This activity was dependent of the used concentration of methanolic extracts. Methanolic extract of A. taxiformis elicited remarkable antimicrobial activity against all Human pathogenic bacteria except Salmonella sp. (Sa10) and Serratia sp (Se11). However, this extract showed moderate antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Penicellium sp. On the other hand, results obtained show that methanolic extract of H. musciformis exhibit a low activity which was effective only at 02 and 1.5 mg/ml. However, for its antifungal activity, a potent activity against C.albicans, Aspergillus sp. and Penicellium sp. was recorded. The present finding confirms that marine algae can be further studied and used as a possible source of antimicrobial compounds in the medical field.

Keywords


1. Zheng, W., Sun, W., & Simeonov, A. Drug repurposing screens and synergistic drug‐combinations for infectious diseases. British J Pharm. 2018;175(2), 181-191.
2. Luepke KH, Suda KJ, Boucher H, Russo RL, Bonney MW, Hunt TD, et al. Past, Present, and Future of Antibacterial Economics: Increasing Bacterial Resistance, Limited Antibiotic Pipeline, and Societal Implications. Pharmacotherapy. 2017 Jan;37(1):71-84. doi: 10.1002/phar.1868. Epub 2016 Dec 27. PMID: 27859453.
3. Silver LL, Bostian KA. Discovery and development of new antibiotics: the problem of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993;37(3):377-383. doi:10.1128/AAC.37.3.377
4. Domettila C, Brintha TSS, Sukumaran S, Jeeva S. Diversity and distribution of seaweeds in the Muttom coastal waters, south-west coast of India. Biodivers J. 2013;4(1):105-110
5. Taskin E, Ozturk M, Taskin E, Kurt O. Antibacterial activities of some marine algae from the Aegean Sea (Turkey). Afr J Biotechnol. 2007;6 (24):2746-2751.
6. Guedes AC, Amaro HM, Malcata FX. Microalgae as sources of carotenoids. Mar Drugs. 2011;9(4):625-644. doi:10.3390/md9040625
7. Jeeva S, Antonisamy JM, Domettila C, Anantham B, Mahesh M. Preliminary phytochemical studies on some selected seaweeds from Gulf of Mannar India. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. (2012);2 (1), S30–S33.
8. Ramkissoon A, Ramsubhag A, Maxwell A, Jayaraman J. In vitro antimicrobial activity of common species of seaweeds native to Trinidadian coasts. Algol Stud. 2015;147:4-66.
9. Damonte EB, Matulewicz MC, Cerezo AS. Sulfated seaweed polysaccharides as antiviral agents. Curr Med Chem. 2004 Sep;11(18):2399-419. doi: 10.2174/0929867043364504. PMID: 15379705.
10. Cox S, Abu-Ghannam N, Gupta S. An assessment of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of six species of edible Irish seaweeds. Food Res Int. 2010;J:17, 205-20.
11. Menaa F, Wijesinghe U, Thiripuranathar G, Althobaiti NA, Albalawi AE, Khan BA, et al. Marine Algae-Derived Bioactive Compounds: A New Wave of Nanodrugs? Mar Drugs. 2021 Aug 26;19(9):484. doi: 10.3390/md19090484. PMID: 34564146; PMCID: PMC8469996.
12. Namvar F, Tahir PM, Mohamad R, Mahdavi M, Abedi P, Najafi TF, Rahmanand HS, et al. Biomedical properties of edible seaweed in cancer therapy and chemoprevention trials: a review. Nat Prod Commun. 2013 Dec;8(12):1811-20. PMID: 24555303.
13. Lavanya R, Veerappan N. Antibacterial potential of six seaweeds collected from Gulf of Mannar of Southeast Coast of India. Adv Biol Res. 2011;5(1):38-44.
14. Thanigaivel S, Vijayakumar S, Gopinath S, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N, Thomas J. In vivo and in vitro antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica (Lin) against Citrobacter freundii isolated from naturally infected Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Aquac. 2015;437:1:252-255.
15. Balboa EM, Conde E, Moure A, Falqué E, Domínguez H. In vitro antioxidant properties of crude extracts and compounds from brown algae. Food Chem. 2013 Jun 1;138(2-3):1764-85. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.11.026. Epub 2012 Nov 16. PMID: 23411309.
16. Thinh PD, Menshova RV, Ermakova SP, Anastyuk SD, Ly BM, Zvyagintseva TN. Structural characteristics and anticancer activity of fucoidan from the brown alga Sargassum mcclurei. Mar Drugs. 2013 May 6;11(5):1456-76. doi: 10.3390/md11051456. PMID: 23648551; PMCID: PMC3707154.
17. Yang Y, Liu D, Wu J, Chen Y, Wang S. In vitro antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharide fractions extracted from Corallina officinalis. Int J Biol Macromol. 2011 Dec 1;49(5):1031-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2011.08.026. Epub 2011 Sep 1. PMID: 21896282.
18. Kavitha J, Palani S. Phytochemical screening, GC-MS analysis and antioxidant activity of marine alga Chlorococcum humicola. World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2016;5(6):1154-1167
19. Karthick N, Kumar RM. Evaluation of phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of Sargassum weightii. Int J Plant Sci. 2014;4(4):96-99.
20. CLSI. CLSI; 2012. Performance standards for antimicrobial disc susceptibility tests;approved standard – 11th ed. document M02-A11.
21. Jayachandran M, Chung SSM, Xu B. A critical review on diet-induced microbiota changes and cardiovascular diseases. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2020;60(17):2914-2925. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2019.1666792. Epub 2019 Sep 25. PMID: 31552753.
22. Lee KW, Kim YJ, Lee HJ, Lee CY. Cocoa has more phenolic phytochemicals and a higher antioxidant capacity than teas and red wine. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Dec 3;51(25):7292-5. doi: 10.1021/jf0344385. PMID: 14640573.
23. Boulekbache-Makhlouf L, Slimani S, Madani K. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of fruits of Eucalyptus globulus cultivated in Algeria. Ind Crops Prod. 2013;41:85-89. 10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.04.019.
24. Chakraborty K, Praveen NK, Vijayan KK, Rao GS. Evaluation of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of brown seaweeds belonging to Turbinaria spp. (Phaeophyta, Sargassaceae) collected from Gulf of Mannar. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013 Jan;3(1):8-16. doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60016-7. PMID: 23570010; PMCID: PMC3609390.
25. Mellouk Z, Benammar I, Krouf D, Goudjil M, Okbi M, Malaisse W. Antioxidant properties of the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis collected on the North West Algerian coast. Exp Ther Med. 2017 Jun;13(6):3281-3290. doi: 10.3892/etm.2017.4413. Epub 2017 May 2. PMID: 28587401; PMCID: PMC5450726.
26. Manilal A, Sugathan S, Kiran S, Selvin J, Shakir C, Gandhimathi R, Panikkar MV. Biopotentials of Seaweeds Collected from Southwest Coast of India. J Mar Sci Tech-Taiw. 2009;17:67-73. doi:10.51400/2709-6998.1979.
27. Balakrishnan CP, Jenifer P, Esakkilingam M. Algal documentation and Phytochemical studies of red algae Gracilaria corticata of Manapad Coast, Tamil Nadu. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2013;2(4):193-7.
28. Alghazeer R, Fauzi W, Entesar A, Fatiem W, Gammoudi SA. Screening of antibacterial activity in marine green, red and brown macroalgae from the western coast of Libya. Nat Sci. 2013;5(1):7-14.
29. Lesueur D, Serra D, Bighelli A, Hoi TM, Ban NK, Thai TH, et al. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Michelia foveolata Merryll ex Dandy from Vietnam. Flavour Fragr J. 2007;22:317-321.
30. Sastry V, Rao G. Antibacterial Substances from Marine Algae: Successive Extraction Using Benzene, Chloroform and Methanol. Botanica Marina. 1994;37(4): 357-360. https://doi.org/10.1515/botm.1994.37.4.357
31. Kladi M, Vagias C, Roussis V. Volatile halogenated metabolites from marine red algae. Phytochem Rev. 2004;3:337-66
32. Furnari G, Giaccone, G. SERIO D. Alien macrophytes in the Mediterranean Sea: a review. 2004;1:153-202.
33. Genovese G, Leitner S, Minicante SA, Lass-Flörl C. The Mediterranean red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis has antifungal activity against Aspergillus species. Mycoses. 2013 Sep;56(5):516-9. doi: 10.1111/myc.12065. Epub 2013 Feb 26. PMID: 23437896.
34. El baroty G, Moussa M, Shallan MA, Ali MA, Sabh AZ, Shalaby E. Contribution to the aroma, biological activities, minerals, protein, pigments and lipid contents of the red alga: Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan. J Appl Sci Res. 2007;3:1825-34.
35. Kazłowska K, Hsu T, Hou CC, Yang WC, Tsai GJ. Anti-inflammatory properties of phenolic compounds and crude extract from Porphyra dentata. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Mar 2;128(1):123-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.12.037. Epub 2010 Jan 4. PMID: 20051261.
36. Rhimou B, Riadi H, Martínez J, Nathalie B. The antibacterial potential of the Seaweeds (Rhodophyceae) of the Strait of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean Coast of Morocco. Afr J Biotechnol. 2010;9:6365-6372.
37. Kandhasamy M, Kantha A. Evaluation of in vitro antibacterial property of seaweeds of southeast coast of India. Afr J Biotechnol. 2010;7:1958-61.
38. Moreau J, Pesando D, Caram B. Antifungal and antibacterial screening of Dictyotales from the French Mediterranean coast. In: Bird C.J., Ragan M.A. (eds) Eleventh International Seaweed Symposium. Developments in Hydrobiology. 1984;22. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-6560-7_106
39. Taskin E, Caki Z, Ozturk M. Assessment of in vitro antitumoral and antimicrobial activities of marine algae harvested from the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Afr J Biotechnol. 2010;9:4272-4277.
40. Salvador N, Gómez Garreta A, Lavelli L, Ribera MA. Antimicrobial activity of Iberian macroalgae. Sci Marina. 2007;71(1):101-14.
41. Padmakumar K, Ayyakkannu K. Seasonal Variation of Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of the Extracts of Marine Algae from Southern Coasts of India. Botanica Marina. 1997;40:507-516. doi: 10.1515/botm.1997.40.1-6.507.
42. Guedes AC, Amaro HM, Malcata FX. Microalgae as sources of carotenoids. Mar Drugs. 2011;9(4):625-44. doi: 10.3390/md9040625. Epub 2011 Apr 20. PMID: 21731554; PMCID: PMC3124977.
43. González del Val A, Platas G, Basilio A, Cabello A, Gorrochategui J, Suay I, et al. Screening of antimicrobial activities in red, green and brown macroalgae from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). Int Microbiol. 2001 Mar;4(1):35-40. doi: 10.1007/s101230100006. PMID: 11770818.
44. Etahiri S, Bultel-Poncé V, Elkouri AE, Assobhei O, Zaoui D, Guyot M. Antibacterial activities of marine algae from the Atlantic coast of Morocco. Mar Life. 2003;13:3-9.