Drug utilization evaluation of Rivaroxaban in both inpatient and outpatient settings: Using standard guidelines

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

2 Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

3 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

4 Clinical Neurology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

5 Stem Cells Technology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.


Stroke-related atrial fibrillation (AF), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) are among the most common thromboembolic events. recently, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been slowly replacing warfarin. Rivaroxaban is a DOAC frequently prescribes to control thrombotic events. The safety and efficacy of Rivaroxaban are dependent on appropriate prescription, dosage, and other factors. This study is aimed to evaluate the Rivaroxaban utilization based on the standard protocol in both inpatient and outpatient settings. This cross-sectional/observational study was conducted for six months from 1st August 2018 to 1st February 2019 at a private hospital and also an outpatient clinic in Shiraz, Iran. First, a clinical pharmacist defined a standard protocol for Rivaroxaban utilization and several indexes (9 indexes for Non-valvular AF (NVAF) patients and 10 indexes for DVT/PE patients). Second, participants were classified into three groups (NVAF inpatients, NVAF outpatients, and DVT/PE patients). Finally, the adherence of Rivaroxaban utilization indexes in each group to was evaluated accordingly. Two hundred and forty one eligible patients were recruited into this study. Most patients (N=208), were NVAF. Rivaroxaban utilization was appropriate in 71.9%, 65.8%, and 50.6% of patients within groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Although medication interaction, administration regarding time/meal, and dose adjustment based on renal function showed the lowest compliance, the monitoring laboratory data and considering the underlying disorders were completely matched with the protocol. This study showed some critical errors in both settings, especially in DVT/PE patients (49.4% no match). Hence, the most productive collaboration must be developed between clinical pharmacists and clinical practitioners.


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