Silymarin’s Potential in Countering Drug-induced Cardiotoxicity, Nephrotoxicity, and Hepatotoxicity: A Narrative Review

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 Department of Pharmacotherapy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran



According to availability of natural products, lower cost and less toxic effects compared to synthetic drugs make them an easy and excellent choice in the treatment of diseases. Silymarin “milk thistle” has been used for many years. Silymarin has antioxidant, anti-lipid peroxidation, anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. These effects are due to the addition of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, inhibition of neutrophil infiltration, and a reduction in serum malondialdehyde as an end product of myocardial lipid peroxide. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of silymarin may also have a protective role against carcinogens. Studies have shown that Silymaran can have protective effects against hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and cardiotoxicity caused by chemical agents. A notable feature is the prowess of silymarin in shielding against reperfusion injury and inflammation, sustained by its unwavering support of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions .This review provides a comprehensive survey of the potentials of silymarin in cardio-protection, nephroprotection, and hepatoprotection.